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❶The median to year-old uses four of these platforms, but that figure drops to three among to year-olds, to two among to year-olds and to one among those 65 and older. This article needs additional citations for verification.

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Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform by a relatively healthy margin: The Center has asked about the use of five of these platforms Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn and Pinterest in several previous surveys of technology use.

And for the most part, the share of Americans who use each of these services is similar to what the Center found in its previous survey of social media use conducted in April The most notable exception is Instagram: As was true in previous Pew Research Center surveys of social media use, there are substantial differences in social media use by age.

At the same time, there are pronounced differences in the use of various social media platforms within the young adult population as well. Americans ages 18 to 24 are substantially more likely to use platforms such as Snapchat, Instagram and Twitter even when compared with those in their mid- to lates.

These differences are especially notable when it comes to Snapchat: With the exception of those 65 and older, Facebook is used by a majority of Americans across a wide range of demographic groups. But other platforms appeal more strongly to certain subsets of the population. In addition to the age-related differences in the use of sites such as Instagram and Snapchat noted above, these are some of the more prominent examples:. For more details on social media platform use by different demographic groups, see Appendix A.

Along with being the most popular social media site, Facebook users also visit the site with high levels of frequency. In addition to adopting Snapchat and Instagram at high rates, the youngest adults also stand out in the frequency with which they use these two platforms. As was true in previous surveys of social media use, there is a substantial amount of overlap between users of the various sites measured in this survey.

Most notably, a significant majority of users of each of these social platforms also indicate that they use Facebook and YouTube. Statistics can help understand a phenomenon by confirming or rejecting a hypothesis. It is vital to how we acquire knowledge to most scientific theories. You don't need to be a scientist though; anyone wanting to learn about how researchers can get help from statistics may want to read this statistics tutorial for the scientific method.

The results of a science investigation often contain much more data or information than the researcher needs.

This data-material, or information, is called raw data. To be able to analyze the data sensibly, the raw data is processed into " output data ". There are many methods to process the data, but basically the scientist organizes and summarizes the raw data into a more sensible chunk of data. Any type of organized information may be called a " data set ". Then, researchers may apply different statistical methods to analyze and understand the data better and more accurately. Depending on the research, the scientist may also want to use statistics descriptively or for exploratory research.

What is great about raw data is that you can go back and check things if you suspect something different is going on than you originally thought. This happens after you have analyzed the meaning of the results. The raw data can give you ideas for new hypotheses, since you get a better view of what is going on. You can also control the variables which might influence the conclusion e. In statistics, a parameter is any numerical quantity that characterizes a given population or some aspect of it.

This part of the statistics tutorial will help you understand distribution, central tendency and how it relates to data sets. Much data from the real world is normal distributed , that is, a frequency curve, or a frequency distribution , which has the most frequent number near the middle.

Many experiments rely on assumptions of a normal distribution. This is a reason why researchers very often measure the central tendency in statistical research, such as the mean arithmetic mean or geometric mean , median or mode.

The central tendency may give a fairly good idea about the nature of the data mean, median and mode shows the "middle value" , especially when combined with measurements on how the data is distributed. Scientists normally calculate the standard deviation to measure how the data is distributed. But there are various methods to measure how data is distributed: To create the graph of the normal distribution for something, you'll normally use the arithmetic mean of a " big enough sample " and you will have to calculate the standard deviation.

However, the sampling distribution will not be normally distributed if the distribution is skewed naturally or has outliers often rare outcomes or measurement errors messing up the data. One example of a distribution which is not normally distributed is the F-distribution , which is skewed to the right.

So, often researchers double check that their results are normally distributed using range, median and mode. Using statistics in research involves a lot more than make use of statistical formulas or getting to know statistical software. Statistics in research is not just about formulas and calculation. Statistics is employed in economics , psychology , political science , sociology and anthropology.

There is a debate regarding the uses and value of statistical methods in social science, especially in political science, with some statisticians [ who? Indeed, an important axiom that social scientists cite, but often forget [ who? The use of statistics has become so widespread in the social sciences that many universities such as Harvard , have developed institutes focusing on "quantitative social science.

However, some experts in causality feel that these claims of causal statistics are overstated, [1] [2]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references.

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Statistics is a mathematical science involving the collection, interpretation, measurement, enumerations or estimation analysis, and presentation of natural or social phenomena, through application of various tools and technique the raw data becomes meaningful and generates the information’s for decision making purpose.

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Statistics is the science of collecting, analyzing and making inference from data. Statistics is a particularly useful branch of mathematics that is not only studied theoretically by advanced mathematicians but one that is used by researchers in many fields to organize, analyze, and summarize data.

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Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization Critically Analyze Research and Results Using R. Learn to recognize sloppy science, perform solid research and do appropriate data analysis. This book covers applied statistics for the social sciences with upper-level undergraduate students in mind. The chapters are based on lecture notes from an introductory statistics course the author has taught for a number of years. The book integrates statistics into the research process, with.

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