This is when the population is divided into sub-populations called strata, and random samples are drawn from each of the strata, or elements are drawn for the sample on a proportional basis. There are several ways of administering a survey. The choice between administration modes is influenced by several factors, including. Different methods create mode effects that change how respondents answer, and different methods have different advantages. The most common modes of administration can be summarized as: There are several different designs, or overall structures, that can be used in survey research.
The three general types are cross-sectional, successive independent samples, and longitudinal studies. In cross-sectional studies, a sample or samples is drawn from the relevant population and studied once.
A successive independent samples design draws multiple random samples from a population at one or more times. Such studies cannot, therefore, identify the causes of change over time necessarily.
For successive independent samples designs to be effective, the samples must be drawn from the same population, and must be equally representative of it. If the samples are not comparable, the changes between samples may be due to demographic characteristics rather than time. In addition, the questions must be asked in the same way so that responses can be compared directly.
Longitudinal studies take measure of the same random sample at multiple time points. Longitudinal studies are the easiest way to assess the effect of a naturally occurring event, such as divorce that cannot be tested experimentally. However, longitudinal studies are both expensive and difficult to do. This attrition of participants is not random, so samples can become less representative with successive assessments.
To account for this, a researcher can compare the respondents who left the survey to those that did not, to see if they are statistically different populations. Respondents may also try to be self-consistent in spite of changes to survey answers. Questionnaires are the most commonly used tool in survey research. However, the results of a particular survey are worthless if the questionnaire is written inadequately. A variable category that is often measured in survey research are demographic variables, which are used to depict the characteristics of the people surveyed in the sample.
Reliable measures of self-report are defined by their consistency. It is important to note that there is evidence to suggest that self-report measures tend to be less accurate and reliable than alternative methods of assessing data e.
Six steps can be employed to construct a questionnaire that will produce reliable and valid results. The way that a question is phrased can have a large impact on how a research participant will answer the question. A respondent's answer to an open-ended question can be coded into a response scale afterwards,  or analysed using more qualitative methods.
Survey researchers should carefully construct the order of questions in a questionnaire. The following ways have been recommended for reducing nonresponse  in telephone and face-to-face surveys: Brevity is also often cited as increasing response rate. A literature review found mixed evidence to support this claim for both written and verbal surveys, concluding that other factors may often be more important.
Survey methodologists have devoted much effort to determining the extent to which interviewee responses are affected by physical characteristics of the interviewer. Main interviewer traits that have been demonstrated to influence survey responses are race,  gender,  and relative body weight BMI.
Hence, race of interviewer has been shown to affect responses to measures regarding racial attitudes,  interviewer sex responses to questions involving gender issues,  and interviewer BMI answers to eating and dieting-related questions. The explanation typically provided for interviewer effects is social desirability bias: Interviewer effects are one example survey response effects. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Statistics Canada publication, see Survey Methodology.
Research methods in psychology 9th ed. Hand , Advising on Research Methods: A consultant's companion pp. Johannes van Kessel Publishing. The total design method. Experiments in telephone introductions". Kwantitatieve Methoden , 22, 41— Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods. Evidence from the multi-city study of urban inequality".
Findings from a household survey in Mexico". International Journal of Public Opinion Research. Evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up".
There are two key features of survey research: Questionnaires -- a predefined series of questions used to collect information from individuals Sampling -- a technique in which a subgroup of the population is selected to answer the survey questions; the information collected can be generalized to the entire population of interest. Closed-Ended Questions The respondents are given a list of predetermined responses from which to choose their answer The list of responses should include every possible response and the meaning of the responses should not overlap An example of a close-ended survey question would be, "Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statement: Sensitive questions, such as questions about income, drug use, or sexual activity, should be put at the end of the survey.
This allows the researcher to establish trust before asking questions that might embarrass respondents. Researchers also recommend putting routine questions, such as age, gender, and marital status, at the end of the questionnaire Double-barreled questions, which ask two questions in one, should never be used in a survey. An example of a double barreled question is, "Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statement: Surveys can be admininistered in three ways: Through the mail Advantage: Low response rate By telephone Advantages: Higher response rates; responses can be gathered more quickly Disadvantage: More expensive than mail surveys Face-to-face Advantages: Highest response rates; better suited to collecting complex information Disadvantage: Very expensive Visit the following website for more information about survey administration: What is a Survey?
Glossary terms related to survey administration: Four sampling techniques are described here: Simple Random Sampling Simple random sampling is the most basic form of sampling Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected This sampling process is similar to a lottery: In this procedure, telephone numbers are generated by a computer at random and called to identify individuals to participate in the survey Cluster Sampling Cluster sampling is generally used when it is geographically impossible to undertake a simple random sample Cluster sampling requires that adjustments be made in statistical analyses For example, in a face-to-face interview, it is difficult and expensive to survey households across the nation.
Stratified Sampling Stratified samples are used when a researcher wants to ensure that there are enough respondents with certain characteristics in the sample The researcher first identifies the people in the population who have the desired characteristics, then randomly selects a sample of them Stratified sampling requires that adjustments be made in statistical analyses For example, a researcher may want to compare survey responses of African-Americans and Caucasians.
Nonrandom Sampling Common nonrandom sampling techniques include convenience sampling and snowball sampling Nonrandom samples cannot be generalized to the population of interest. Consequently, it is problematic to make inferences about the population In survey research, random, cluster, or stratified samples are preferable Visit the following websites for more information about sampling procedures: Systematic Error Systematic error is more serious than random error Occurs when the survey responses are systematically different from the target population responses For example, if a researcher only surveyed individuals who answered their phone between 9 and 5, Monday through Friday, the survey results would be biased toward individuals who are unemployed Sources of bias include Nonobservational error -- Individuals in the target population are systematically excluded from the sample, such as in the example above Observational error -- When respondents systematically answer surveys question incorrectly.
For example, surveys that ask respondents how much they weigh will probably underestimate the population's weight because respondents are likely to underreport their weight Random Error Random error is an expected part of survey research, and statistical techniques are designed to account for this sort of measurement error Occurs because of natural and uncontrollable variations in the survey process, i.
Visit the following website for more information about measurement error: Reducing Measurement Error Glossary terms related to measurement error: Informed Consent Respondents should give informed consent before participating in a survey.
The essence of survey method can be explained as “questioning individuals on a topic or topics and then describing their responses”. In business studies survey method of primary data collection is used in order to test concepts, reflect attitude of people, establish the level of customer satisfaction, conduct segmentation research and a set of other purposes.
- Definition, Methods & Types This lesson explores the ways a researcher may employ the types of surveys used in research. We will also go over the strengths and weaknesses of each type of survey.
Survey Research Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents. distinguish the survey tool from the survey research that it is designed to support. Survey Strengths Surveys are capable of obtaining information from large samples of the population.
Survey research is a commonly used method of collecting information about a population of interest. There are many different types of surveys, several ways to administer them, and many methods . Our survey methodology in detail Sampling The typical Pew Research Center national survey selects a random digit sample of both landline and cellphone numbers in .