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❶Ratisbon and Augsburg were other sites of early manufacture. When ready, the sheet is 'sized' by lowering it into an animal glue made from boiling scraps of vellum or other offcuts.

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Important part in the continuation of knowledge during the Middle Ages 1. During the Dark Ages there was no major sense of discovery, however in the Chinese and Islamic world paper was being used for civilizations based on knowledge and discovery.

By helping the continuation of the age of discovery paper has helped the modern age in its pursuit of knowledge 1. Paper has helped us move to the technological age 2. By paper helping us reach this age our knowledge of the world increases E. Paper has helped in the development of the modern day. Creating downloadable prezi, be patient. Delete comment or cancel. Cancel Reply 0 characters used from the allowed.

Send link to edit together this prezi using Prezi Meeting learn more: Reset share links Resets both viewing and editing links coeditors shown below are not affected. Send this link to let others join your presentation: Sheets of paper were then pressed out, dried and hardened.

The demand for paper was slight in the 1st Century Europe Hunter , Paper cost more than vellum, it was more fragile than parchment and it was associated with Jews and Arabs who were not trusted. Hunter , 61 In fact, The Church in Western Europe initially banned the use of paper calling it a 'pagan art' believing that animal parchment was the only thing 'holy' enough to carry the Sacred Word.

Hunter , The first representation of the printing process is the wood print Der Papierer by Jost Amman in the Little Book of trades. In Italy the first great center of the paper-making industry was Fabriano in the marquisate of Ancona.

Mills were established in , and rose to importance with the decline of the manufacture in Spain. This document clearly points to the existence of a number of paper factories, and implies a well developed commercial activity.

Fabriano was the first manufacturing center to harness water power to drive the fibrillation pulping process, previously a labor intensive manual activity. In a factory was established at and Treviso ; and other factories were quickly established in the territories of Florence, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Venice. The factories of northern Italy supplied southern Germany with paper as late as the 15th century. The earliest German factories are said to have been set up between Cologne and Mainz, and in Mainz itself about Ulman Stromer established a mill in at Nuremberg, with the aid of Italian workmen.

Ratisbon and Augsburg were other sites of early manufacture. Western Germany, the Netherlands and England, are said to have obtained paper at first from France and Burgundy then through the markets of Bruges, Antwerp and Cologne.

By the second half of the 14th Century, the use of paper for all literary purposes had become established in all of Western Europe. In the course of the 15th century vellum was gradually superseded by paper. Some later manuscripts would use a mixture of vellum and paper. The Council Statute of prohibited anyone within a radius of 50 miles from Fabriano buildings from manufacturing paper or teaching paper making secrets to those not residing within the Council territory, pending a fine of 50 ducats.

A later prohibition has even stiffer penalties. Transgressors were considered "rebels" and thereby banned from the city with consequent capital confiscation. The extent of the power of the local tribunal's protection of the Fabriano papermakers is highlighted in a document. Council priors, concerned that if maestro Piero di Stefano, the only artisan who practiced the "modular" art in the Marche province died his craft would die with him.

The Council demanded the old maestro to teach the craft to his son or any apprentice in his workshop and not to construct or repair screens used outside the district of Fabriano or he would be penalized with a fine of ducats. It must be constructed so that it will support the weight of the paste and the water without deforming the paper. The British Museum has a register Add. The paper, of a rough manufacture, is similar to the kind that was used in Spain.

The Records of Merton College, Oxford, show that paper was purchased "pro registro" in Evidence for the history of paper-making in England is extremely scanty. The first maker whose name is known is John Tate, who is said to have set up a mill in Hertford early in the 16th century. He manipulated the favor and patronage of successive monarchs to ensure that he had a virtual monopoly of the paper industry.

It is not clear whether John Spilman himself knew anything about the techniques of paper-making, but he was able to finance the employment of skilled German paper-makers at Dartford. The newly constituted paper-mill of Dartford was the first mill in England to produce good quality white paper on a commercially viable basis. It was a sight to behold, one of the town's earliest tourist attractions!

Spilman's Dartford mill was the subject of lines of poetry written in by Thomas Churchyard and dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh.

The acutely long-winded doggerel includes the first description of paper-making ever to appear in print. The mill seems to have been a prominent and impressive riverside feature: A Paper-mill That now neere Dartford standeth well Where Spilman may himself and household dwell The Mill itself is sure right rare to see The framing is so quaint and finely done Built of wood and hollowed trunks of trees The Hammers thump and make so loud a noise As fuller doth that beats his woollen cloth In open show, then Sundry secret toyes Make rotten rags to yield a thickened froth There it is stamped and washed as white as snow Then flung on frame and hanged to dry, I trow Thus paper straight it is to write upon As it were rubbed and smoothed with slicking stoneThe Dartford-based mill was granted extensive monopoly powers that were often the subject of dispute.

Nobody else was permitted to build a paper-mill without Spilman's consent. In July Spilman was granted a new patent for 14 years which confirmed his monopoly and granted him and his deputies power to search any premises where they suspected rags or paper were being hidden.

Spilman's water-tight monopoly was designed to stop other mills attempting to make highly-prized white paper. It is clear that there was some diversification of product at a later date, for in Spilman was making a new and pleasing kind of playing card.

John Spilman was knighted by James I at Dartford. The knighthood was probably granted as much for his activities as court goldsmith and jeweler as for his contribution towards the evolution and development of England's paper industry. Sir John died in and is commemorated in Holy Trinity Church with a tomb, which incorporates colored effigies of himself and his first wife Elizabeth Mengel, daughter of a Nuremberg merchant.

She died in at the age of He had several children by his second wife Katherine who survived until about Some 37 paper mills existed in England between and , most were involved with the production of inferior quality brown paper.

The trend towards the production of white paper came later after Spilman's monopoly was broken. Papermaking required a long and often expensive apprenticeship. Workers were frequently sworn to secrecy because no craftsman wished to share knowledge with competitors.

Thirteenth century, paper was produced almost entirely from linen and cotton rags pulped in water http: The pulped fibers were thoroughly mixed in a deep vat, the n the vatman would dip a wire mesh tray into the mixture and a sufficient amount lifted out to yield the required thickness of paper. A wooden frame called a deckle fitted over the tray to form a raised edge and prevented the watery pulp from escaping.

Pulp flowing between the frame and the deckle produced an irregular feathery edge around the paper hence the term "deckle-edged" paper. As soon as possible the newly formed sheet of paper was removed from the tray and placed between two pieces of felt. Thus watermarks came into being as a means of distinguishing paper stocks and their makers.

Before a late medieval scribe could begin to write out a manuscript, a decision had to be made whether to use paper or parchment. Paper was cheaper and lighter and had the advantage of being supplied in sheets of an exact format. Parchment was thought to be stronger and has a slightly springy writing surface which gives an agreeable flexibility to pen strokes as compared with the unyielding flatness of writing on paper.

The most beautiful and elaborate manuscripts were always on parchment, which was used for Books of Hours and other traditional books intended for a long life. Parchment and paper as finished by the parchmenter or paper-maker are supplied in large rectangular sheets. A book is not made up of single pages, but of pairs of leaves or bifolia.

Several pairs of leaves are assembled one inside another, folded vertically down the middle and they can be stitched through the middle of the central fold to make a book in its simplest form.

Each clutch of folded bifolia is called a gathering or quire. All standard medieval manuscripts are made up of gatherings. A manuscript is a unit formed by assembling in sequence a series of smaller units. Scribes and illuminators worked on a gathering at a time. If one is examining a medieval manuscript carefully today, the first task will often be to peer into the centre of the folded pages looking for the sewing threads and sketching out a physical plan of where each gathering begins and ends.

A gathering is usually of eight leaves, or four bifolia. In early Irish manuscripts and in fifteenth-century Italian books a gathering was often of ten leaves. Little thirteenth-century Bibles, which used exceedingly thin parchment, were often made of gatherings of twelve, sixteen, or even twenty-four leaves. Sometimes a book was made up mostly of gatherings of eight leaves but ended with a gathering of six or ten leaves because the conclusion of the text fitted more neatly.

Sometimes even within a manuscript there were gatherings of irregular length, and these can be clues as to how the maker put the book together. As we remember, there are the subtle differences between what had been the hair side and what had been the flesh side of a sheet of parchment.

Almost without a single exception in over a thousand years of book production in every conceivable circumstance all over Europe, facing pages match.


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In the earlier Middle Ages scribes probably assembled their gatherings and wrote in them as they worked through the transcription of a book. By the fifteenth century, at the latest, stationers were certainly selling paper and parchment already made up into gatherings.

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- The Middle Ages lasted approximately 1, years, from the 5th to 15th century. The early part of the Middle Ages is also known as the Dark Ages. The Middle Ages has many nicknames including the Golden Ages and Medieval Times. One of the most accurate nicknames for .

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The Middle Ages are exciting to study and contain a wide variety of research paper topics for religion, history, social sciences and philosophy research papers. Paper Masters suggests the topic you see below on rulers in the Middle Ages for a research paper. Paper of Oriental manufacture in the Middle Ages can be distinguished by its stout substance and glossy surface, and was devoid of water-marks. (Stutermeister , 11)Paper In Europe The first mention of rag-paper occurs in the tract of Peter, abbot of Cluny (A.D. - ), adversus ludaeos, cap. 5.

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Paper helped in the continuation of knowledge during the Dark Ages continue to even today Paper has left us a great impact Paper and It's Importance In the Middle Ages Shaharoz Tahir 6/8/15 Paper Today Paper today is so much in use today that every year we use pounds of paper every year. A. Writing was much easier 1. The Middle Ages were a time of growth and questioning tradition. When students research and write about the Middle Ages, they can learn about the different developments and advancements in art, literature, religion, politics, and society that would help change the world.