In some European countries population rates are negative Hungary, Estonia, Russia, Ukraine and others. Some demographers suppose, Africa is expected to capture the greatest share in the world population.
Population growth in more developed countries is already low and is expected to stabilize. According to the most recent UN estimates, between now and world population growth will be generated exclusively in developing countries. However, human population of the developed countries will decline.
According to the most recent medium variant UN population projection these ten countries will contribute most to world population growth over the next 50 years. As far as we know Europe and Africa are each home of about one eighth of the human population. This is expected to change significantly in the future. Hence, we can expect a dramatic change in the global balance of population — in some 50 years only Western Africa will have more population than all the countries of South America, the Caribbean and Oceania combined.
As far as we noticed population has a tendency to increase in the developing countries because of several reasons. The first argument is hunger. The main reason for hunger is poverty. These various limit to population growth are collectively concept of this resistance is the carrying capacity i.
In many cases populations undergo repeated overshoot-dieback cycles, Sometimes these cycles gradually decrease until a stable population is reached with equilibrium in carrying capacity. As the population grows, the number of breeding adults increases so that growth accelerates. Increases at a constant accelerating rate of change is known as exponential growth. Generally more stable populations are desirable. The rapid growth of population is perhaps the most obvious factor affecting the present and future national and regional development, but it is by no means the only population problem in the world today.
Population explosion is a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. In the First stage, both birth and death rates are high and hence population remains more or less stable.
The guests learn too late their error, in counter-acting those strict orders to all intruders, issued by the great mistress of the feast, who, wishing that all guests should have plenty, and knowing she could not provide for unlimited numbers, humanely refused to admit fresh comers when her table was already full. Ecologist Professor Garrett Hardin claims that the preceding passage inspired hostile reactions from many critics.
The offending passage of Malthus' essay appeared in the 2nd edition only, as Malthus felt obliged to remove it. From the 2nd edition onwards — in Book IV — Malthus advocated moral restraint as an additional, and voluntary, check on population. This included such measures as sexual abstinence and late marriage. As noted by Professor Robert M. Young, Malthus dropped his chapters on natural theology from the 2nd edition onwards.
Also, the essay became less of a personal response to Godwin and Condorcet. A Summary View on the Principle of Population was published in The author was identified as Rev. Malthus wrote A Summary View for those who did not have the leisure to read the full essay and, as he put it, "to correct some of the misrepresentations which have gone abroad respecting two or three of the most important points of the Essay".
A Summary View ends with a defense of the Principle of Population against the charge that it "impeaches the goodness of the Deity, and is inconsistent with the letter and spirit of the scriptures". See main article Thomas Malthus for more.
Malthus became subject to extreme personal criticism. People who knew nothing about his private life criticised him both for having no children and for having too many. In , Shelley , berating Malthus as a priest, called him "a eunuch and a tyrant". In the 20th century an editor of the Everyman edition of Malthus claimed that Malthus had practised population control by begetting eleven girls.
Garrett Hardin provides an overview of such personal comments. The position held by Malthus as professor at the Haileybury training college, to his death in , gave his theories some influence over Britain's administration of India.
Concerns about Malthus's theory helped promote the idea of a national population census in the UK. Government official John Rickman became instrumental in the carrying out of the first modern British census in , under Pitt's administration. In the s Malthus's writings strongly influenced Whig reforms which overturned Tory paternalism and brought in the Poor Law Amendment Act of Malthus convinced most economists that even while high fertility might increase the gross output , it tended to reduce output per capita.
David Ricardo and Alfred Marshall admired Malthus, and so came under his influence. Early converts to his population theory included William Paley. Despite Malthus's opposition to contraception , his work exercised a strong influence on Francis Place — , whose neo-Malthusian movement became the first to advocate contraception. Place published his Illustrations and Proofs of the Principles of Population in William Godwin criticized Malthus's criticisms of his own arguments in his book On Population Mill considered the criticisms of Malthus made thus far to have been superficial.
Carey maintained that the only situation in which the means of subsistence will determine population growth is one in which a given society is not introducing new technologies or not adopting forward-thinking governmental policy, and that population regulated itself in every well-governed society, but its pressure on subsistence characterized the lower stages of civilization.
Another strand of opposition to Malthus's ideas started in the middle of the 19th century with the writings of Friedrich Engels Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy , and Karl Marx Capital , Engels and Marx argued that what Malthus saw as the problem of the pressure of population on the means of production actually represented the pressure of the means of production on population.
They thus viewed it in terms of their concept of the reserve army of labour. In other words, the seeming excess of population that Malthus attributed to the seemingly innate disposition of the poor to reproduce beyond their means actually emerged as a product of the very dynamic of capitalist economy. Engels called Malthus's hypothesis "the crudest, most barbarous theory that ever existed, a system of despair which struck down all those beautiful phrases about love thy neighbour and world citizenship".
In the Marxist tradition, Lenin sharply criticized Malthusian theory and its neo-Malthusian version,  calling it a "reactionary doctrine" and "an attempt on the part of bourgeois ideologists to exonerate capitalism and to prove the inevitability of privation and misery for the working class under any social system". In England, where Malthus lived, population was rapidly increasing but suitable agricultural land was limited. Russia, on the other hand, had extensive land with agricultural potential yet a relatively sparse population.
In the 20th century, those who regarded Malthus as a failed prophet of doom included an editor of Nature , John Maddox. Economist Julian Lincoln Simon has criticised Malthus's conclusions. Many factors have been identified as having contributed: Each played a role. From the opposite angle, Romanian American economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen , a progenitor in economics and a paradigm founder of ecological economics , has argued that Malthus was too optimistic, as he failed to recognize any upper limit to the growth of population — only, the geometric increase in human numbers is occasionally slowed down checked by the arithmetic increase in agricultural produce, according to Malthus' simple growth model; but some upper limit to population is bound to exist, as the total amount of agricultural land — actual as well as potential — on Earth is finite, Georgescu-Roegen points out.
Machinery , chemical fertilisers and pesticides all rely on mineral resources for their operation, rendering modern agriculture — and the industrialised food processing and distribution systems associated with it — almost as dependent on Earth's mineral stock as the industrial sector has always been. Georgescu-Roegen cautions that this situation is a major reason why the carrying capacity of Earth — that is, Earth's capacity to sustain human populations and consumption levels — is bound to decrease sometime in the future as Earth's finite stock of mineral resources is presently being extracted and put to use.
Anthropologist Eric Ross depicts Malthus's work as a rationalization of the social inequities produced by the Industrial Revolution , anti-immigration movements, the eugenics movement [ clarification needed ] and the various international development movements. Despite use of the term "Malthusian catastrophe" by detractors such as economist Julian Simon — , Malthus himself did not write that mankind faced an inevitable future catastrophe. Rather, he offered an evolutionary social theory of population dynamics as it had acted steadily throughout all previous history.
Malthusian social theory influenced Herbert Spencer 's idea of the survival of the fittest ,  and the modern ecological-evolutionary social theory of Gerhard Lenski and Marvin Harris. Huxley openly criticised communist and Roman Catholic attitudes to birth control , population control and overpopulation. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace each read and acknowledged the role played by Malthus in the development of their own ideas.
Darwin referred to Malthus as "that great philosopher",  and said: I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population The result of this would be the formation of new species.
It was the first great work I had yet read treating of any of the problems of philosophical biology, and its main principles remained with me as a permanent possession, and twenty years later gave me the long-sought clue to the effective agent in the evolution of organic species.
Ronald Fisher commented sceptically on Malthusianism as a basis for a theory of natural selection. John Maynard Smith doubted that famine functioned as the great leveller, as portrayed by Malthus, but he also accepted the basic premises:. Malthusian ideas continue to have considerable influence. Ehrlich has written several books predicting famine as a result of population increase: The Population Bomb ; Population, resources, environment: In the late s Ehrlich predicted that hundreds of millions would die from a coming overpopulation-crisis in the s.
Other examples of work that has been accused of "Malthusianism" include the book The Limits to Growth published by the Club of Rome and the Global report to the then President of the United States Jimmy Carter.
Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov issued many appeals for population-control reflecting the perspective articulated by people from Robert Malthus through Paul R. Ecological economist Herman Daly has recognized the influence of Malthus on his own work on steady-state economics. More recently [update] , a school of "neo-Malthusian" scholars has begun to link population and economics to a third variable, political change and political violence, and to show how the variables interact.
In the early s, Jack Goldstone linked population variables to the English Revolution of — [ citation needed ] and David Lempert devised a model of demographics, economics, and political change in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius. Goldstone has since modeled other revolutions by looking at demographics and economics [ citation needed ] and Lempert has explained Stalin 's purges and the Russian Revolution of in terms of demographic factors that drive political economy.
These approaches suggest that political ideology follows demographic forces. Malthus, sometimes regarded as the founding father of modern demography,  continues to inspire and influence futuristic visions, such as those of K. Eric Drexler relating to space advocacy and molecular nanotechnology. As Drexler put it in Engines of Creation Nevertheless, Malthus was essentially right. The Malthusian growth model now bears Malthus's name.
Verhulst developed the logistic growth model favored by so many critics of the Malthusian growth model in only after reading Malthus's essay. Malthus has also inspired retired physics professor, Albert Allen Bartlett , to lecture over 1, times on "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy", promoting sustainable living and explaining the mathematics of overpopulation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An Essay on the Principle of Population Title page of the original edition of An Essay on the Principle of Population. Chapter VII, p 44 . Chapter 2, p 8 . Chapter IX, p 72 . Modern synthesis 20th century. The autobiography of Charles Darwin. Condorcet and Other Writers 1 ed. Johnson in St Paul's Church-yard. Retrieved 20 June Oxford World's Classics reprint.
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